LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) is the term used to refer to a large group of combustible hydrocarbons - the most well known being propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10).
LPG comes from two sources – it is naturally occurring in oil and gas fields, and is a manmade by-product during the oil refining process. It is most commonly used as an automotive fuel, and as fuel for domestic, industrial, horticultural, agricultural and cooking processes.
LPG’s highly flammable qualities present risk of fire and explosion.
LPG "Sorumlu Müdür Arayanlar" ve "Sorumlu Müdürler"
7 Haziran 2007 Perşembe
What is LPG or LP Gas?
LPG or LP Gas is the abbreviation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas. This group of products includes saturated Hydrocarbons - Propane (C3H8) and Butane (C4H10), which can be stored/transported separately or as a mixture. They exist as gases at normal room temperature and atmospheric pressure.
Why is it called Liquefied Petroleum Gas?
This is because these gases liquefy under moderate pressure. They liquefy at moderate pressures, readily vaporizing upon release of pressure. It is this property that permits transportation of and storage of LP Gas in concentrated liquid form.
Where does LPG come from?
LPG comes from two sources. It can be obtained from the refining of crude oil. When produced this way it is generally in pressurized form. LPG is also extracted from natural gas or crude oil streams coming from underground reservoirs. 60% of LPG in the world today is produced this way whereas 40% of LPG is extracted from refining of crude oil.
What is commercial Propane & Butane?
Ideally products referred to as "propane" and "butane" consist very largely of these saturated hydrocarbons; but during the process of extraction/production certain allowable unsaturated hydrocarbons like ethylene, propylene, butylenes etc. may be included in the mixture along with pure propane and butane. The presence of these in moderate amounts would not affect LPG in terms of combustion but may affect other properties slightly (such as corrosiveness or gum formation).
How is LPG seen & felt?
* It is colorless and cannot be seen
* It is odorless. Hence LPG is odorized by adding an odorant prior to supply to the user, to aid the detection of any leaks.
* It is slightly heavier than air and hence if there is a leak it flows to lower lying areas.
* In liquid form, its density is half that of water and hence it floats initially before it is vaporized.
* It is non-toxic but can cause asphyxiation in very high concentrations in air.
LPG expands upon release and 1 liter of liquid will form approximately 250 liters of vapor
What is LPG used for?
LPG is used as a fuel for domestic (cooking), industrial, horticultural, agricultural, heating and drying processes. LPG can be used as an automotive fuel or as a propellant for aerosols, in addition to other specialist applications. LPG can also be used to provide lighting through the use of pressure lanterns.
Why are Butane and Propane used in combination?
While butane and propane are different chemical compounds, their properties are similar enough to be useful in mixtures. Butane and Propane are both saturated hydrocarbons. They do not react with other. Butane is less volatile and boils at 0.6 deg C. Propane is more volatile and boils at - 42 deg C. Both products are liquids at atmospheric pressure when cooled to temperatures lower than their boiling points. Vaporization is rapid at temperatures above the boiling points. The calorific (heat) values of both are almost equal. Both are thus mixed together to attain the vapor pressure that is required by the end user and depending on the ambient conditions. If the ambient temperature is very low propane is preferred to achieve higher vapor pressure at the given temperature.
What are the advantages of LPG?
The advantages of LPG are as follows
* Because of its relatively fewer components, it is easy to achieve the correct fuel to air mix ratio that allows the complete combustion of the product. This gives LPG its clean burning characteristics.
* Both Propane and Butane are easily liquefied and stored in pressure containers. These properties make the fuel highly portable, and hence, can be easily transported in cylinders or tanks to end-users.
* LPG is a good substitute for petrol in spark ignition engines. Its clean burning properties, in a properly tuned engine, give reduced exhaust emissions, extended lubricant and spark plug life.
* As a replacement for aerosol propellants and refrigerants, LPG provides alternatives to fluorocarbons, which are known to cause deterioration of the earth's ozone layer.
The clean burning properties and portability of LPG provide a substitute for traditional fuels such as wood, coal, and other organic matter. This provides a solution to de-forestation and the reduction of particulate matter in the atmosphere (haze), caused by burning the traditional fuels.
Etiketler: LPG English Content
THE SEARCH for a cleaner motor vehicle fuel appears to have started in right earnest in the country, throwing up a multitude of problems. The bursting of a fake CNG cylinder, while being filled at a petrol pump in Ghatkopar, Mumbai, and the troubling situation in New Delhi, with road transport operators failing to comply with the Supreme Court order on conversion to CNG, clearly underline the fact that ad hoc solutions will not solve automotive emission and pollution problems. The developed countries, particularly Germany, France and the US, (California), have come up with stringent pollution control norms on vehicle emission.
The participation of vehicle manufacturers and fuel suppliers is essential to make any plan a success in the battle against pollution. There cannot be any single solution/fuel that will give the desired results. This has been conclusively proved in the developed countries. In India, we do not seem to be aware of the developments in cleaner fuels and engine technology, and even if we are, the specifications are not enforced. This has been amply demonstrated in the haste in which CNG conversion has been stipulated in New Delhi, without first putting in place the various requirements to meet such conversion targets.
Both Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are known to be cleaner fuels, with specific hydrocarbon contents, pressure ratings and handling requirements.
As the name itself suggests, CNG consists mostly of methane, which is compressed to 80 atmospheres -- a huge pressure rating. CNG is the ideal fuel for trucks, buses and light commercial vehicles (LCVs) that operate within city limits at low speeds, as an alternative to high-speed diesel. These vehicles are unable to run in the cities at their optimum speed and, hence, the incomplete combustion releases huge amounts of carbon-monoxide into the air, apart from other harmful emissions. However, the high-pressure cylinders mounted on heavy vehicles can be protected from accidents and can be refuelled at exclusive CNG filling stations. The crew of these vehicles can also be educated to handle CNG as a fuel.
Vehicle manufacturers, on the other hand, must start fitting CNG engines in their products. The conversion kits for diesel engines will also have to be fitted. It must be clearly understood that CNG cannot be supplied by the oil companies on a subsidised basis for any further prolonged period.
As regards two/three-wheelers and cars, including taxis, it is dangerous to operate these vehicles on CNG. Care should be taken to ensure proper methods of certification of the high-pressure cylinders, and mounting of the same in the vehicles should satisfy all safety standards. Taxi-drivers must also be trained to handle the cylinders, to prevent safety hazards or any untoward accident.
LPG operates at a much lower pressure (8 kg/cm2), is a clean fuel and can easily be imported and used to operate two/three and four-wheelers. The country has limited resources of natural gas, and huge investments are required for bringing it into the country, either in the form of LNG or through pipelines. Hence, the prioritisation of natural gas utilisation must be in the following order:
It would, indeed, be foolish to squander the scarce gas as transport fuel, primarily. Dispensing facilities/outlets for delivering LPG cylinders to cars and taxis, however, can be set up in small areas of the cities. Wherever space is available in existing petrol pumps, replacement of the LPG cylinders can be done at the outlet itself, as in the case of residential units. But there must be proper support and metallic binding to the LPG cylinders to ensure that they are firmly fixed in the boot of the four-wheelers.
It will be dangerous to refill LPG cylinders from dispensing units at outlets, as any leakage can cause immediate explosions and accidents. What we need are LPG cylinders of a commercial size that can be firmly fitted in two/three-wheelers and four-wheelers, but can be detached when empty, so that the new cylinder can be replaced easily.
The Explosives Department, Nagpur, can come up with a proper structure enabling the mounting of LPG cylinders, and replacing with filled cylinders at retailing points. The Government, through an Act in Parliament, has already approved the use of LPG in vehicles and only the modalities of cylinder design by the Explosives Department and the approval of the Transport Ministry are to be obtained. The trend in Europe is towards LPG rather than CNG. Also, factory-fitted LPG kits by the manufacturers themselves will be of immense help.
It is necessary to phase out two/three-wheelers using two-stroke engines, particularly in the cities, where 60 per cent of the carbon monoxide emissions is through two-stroke engines. There is an urgent need to replace the vehicles with at least four-stroke engines and, if possible, promote the wider use of LPG as a fuel. To understand more about vehicular pollution, look at the report prepared for the Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India under the Project No. Q-16014/13/90-CPA and the conclusions and recommendations of the report.
5 Haziran 2007 Salı
Akaryakıt ve tehlikeli madde taşıyan araçlar karayollarında zaman zaman çok büyük tehlikelere neden olabiliyor. Önceki akşam otoyolun Kocaeli Gündoğdu kalıcı konutlar kesiminde bir LPG tankerinin sibobu arızalanınca gaz kaçırmaya başladı. Otoyolun iki şeridi de hemen trafiğe kapatılırken, bir süre sonra olay yerine gelen uzmanlar, sibobu onardı, tanker dolum tesislerine geri döndü.
Kısa sürede olay yerine gelen polis otoyolun iki şeridini de trafiğe kapatırken, itfaiye önlem aldı. Güvenlik şeridine alınan tankere hiç kimse yaklaştırılmazken, 20 dakika sonra olay yerine gelen Aygaz uzman ekibi arızalanan sibobu (rego) onardılar ve tankeri dolum tesislerine geri götürdüler. Aygaz uzmanları Amerikan malı ve güvenlik sertifikalı olan regonun arızalanmasının milyonda bir karşılaşılabilecek bir olay olduğunu ve 2 tona yakın LPG’nin uçtuğunu belirttiler.
SORUMLU MÜDÜR ARANIYOR İLANLARINI GÖSTER
LPG Sorumlu Müdürleri
LPG "Sorumlu Müdür Arayanlar" ve "Sorumlu Müdürler"